Home

Negotiation models in healthcare

How to Model Healthcare Contracts to Maximize Revenue

Negotiation is an essential part of health care practice and is not formally taught during medical training. This article aims to improve the negotiation skills of readers by explaining the essential components of preparation before a negotiation and reviewing common techniques for optimizing negotiated agreements Context: Healthcare practitioners are rarely, if ever taughtthe skills of negotiating with a patient/family in a medicalseng. There appears to be a belief, that these skills areinnate, practiced or learned in training programs orgained in actual medical practice. Yet, evidence suggeststhis is not the case. Reality dictates that a patient/caregiver may not always agree with physicianrecommendations Negotiating with a patient may seem odd, or even off-putting, to physicians and patients alike. It's a consumerist model with shared decision making, Viswanath said, and he noted physicians are hungry for techniques on how to communicate with patients so they leave with satisfaction and a commitment to comply with treatment Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2012, P.P. Barros and others published Models of negotiation and bargaining in health care | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGat

Negotiation techniques for health care professional

Determine Your Position. In preparation for contract negotiation, set a bargaining range that includes an optimum, minimum, and target goal. The optimum is your starting point (ie, the terms you consider ideal), the minimum is the point that must be met for you to sign, and the target is the point at which you would like to end up after negotiation Hospitals and physicians lack the negotiation skills needed to resolve conflicts about patient care decisions, interdepartmental turf wars, insurance agreements, and organizational goals and.

šŸ˜Ž Conflict resolution strategies in nursingCaduceus Medical Symbol 3d model - CGStudio

  1. Compare and contrast the three major negotiation models as applied in the healthcare setting. 450 word count 2 References No references older then 5 years old PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUN
  2. Managed care dollars can represent a significant percentage of a healthcare organization's revenue, and successfully negotiated contracts can not only preserve revenue but yield additional dollars through new insurance products and models
  3. imise the harm that can come from disagreement (e.g. hostility or 'demonising' of the other parties) to maximise any area of agreement, and to find a way of preventing.
  4. There are four models of negotiation and the outcome of the negotiation depends on the approach. The various approaches to negotiation are as follows: Integrative Negotiation or Win-Win Approach This negotiation approach is also called as collaborative or creating value approach
  5. Intensive negotiation skill training endeavors to improve engagement and collaboration between healthcare professionals, and is an important asset among health care providers (Mellman and Dauer, 2007), yet clinicians receive little or no training in negotiation as part of their medical training
  6. negotiation, in th fore m o negotiatef d c:are, is a key element of nursing practice. 1 his is tru e whether negotiation takes place between nurse ansd patients or their relatives, between nurse and nurss e manĀ­ agers (o leadersr o)r between nurse and s health practitioners from other disciĀ­ plines. It i alss o true whether negotiation
  7. Conflict Model - Typical imbalance negotiation, high compete behaviour is very likely to lead to deadlock - which will get you nowhere. They may also be . more interested in winning rather than reaching an agreement. If you're recruiting a negotiator, a very low compete profil

Negotiating and Communicating With Patients Executive

  1. Principles of negotiation and influencing Understanding Individuals: Principles of Negotiation and Influencing This section covers: Principles of Negotiation and Influencing Influencing and negotiating are things we all try to do all the time. For instance, we want to influence our children to behave according to codes and values we feel are appropriate or we want ou
  2. Negotiation is essential in every walk of life for a peaceful and stress free living. Let us go through various models of negotiation: Win Win Model - In this model, each and every individual involved in negotiation wins. No body is at loss in this model and every one is benefited out of the negotiation. This is the most accepted model of.
  3. Sweden has a largely tax-funded health care system that aims at providing equal access for everyone. However, the individual's perception and experience of the health care system remains a relevant topic for researchers. The aim of this study is to learn the patient's perspective on how patients and professionals negotiate in the social context of the Swedish health care system

Models of negotiation and bargaining in health care

Your negotiations will benefit from being able to accurately model medical cost projections representing unique populations. Many payers, whether out of concern for confidentiality or other reasons, are reluctant to provide this historical information The research at the core of the Program for Health Care Negotiation and Conflict Resolution has led to the development of the Walk in the Woods, a distinctive approach to interest-based negotiation, and the Meta-leadership framework and practice method. Course topics range from developing a better understanding of yourself as leader - from. But negotiating healthcare contracts for capital, purchased services and IT services can test the artistry of even the most masterful negotiator. As a seasoned contract negotiator, there are five tactics I recommend finance and operations departments learn to gain the confidence and skill needed to tilt every contract negotiation in their favor SEVEN ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS December 2008 - Jerome Slavik Adapted from Getting To Yes - Negotiating Agreements Without Giving In, R. Fisher and W. Ury 1. RELATIONSHIP: AM I PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE RELATIONSHIP? a) A good negotiating relationship is needed to address differences and conflicts Negotiation is the process by which two or more parties with different interests or perspectives attempt to reach agreement. The domains in which negotiation is relevant can vary widely. We might.

The conflict is a disagreement within oneself or differences or dispute among persons that has potential to cause harm. It is inevitable and may occur in any profession including healthcare. It could be among any group of healthcare professionals or healthcare team between different group of healthc Until our healthcare system's reimbursement model catches up with the mounting evidence for the effectiveness (and cost savings) of an integrative medicine model, some of the best treatments for long-term illness will likely fall on the patient. Most insurance plans, Medicaid, and Medicare are unlikely to pay for acupuncture, a nutritional consultation, gym membership, or even a clinical. Within healthcare, all components of the framework, from leadership to learning, can be rated on a cultural maturity scale, as seen in Figure 2. Figure 2: Cultural Maturity Model. Historically, nurses and doctors have been trained and evaluated using the individual expert model Provider-payer rate negotiations changing as care models evolve. Value-based care initiatives and growth in the individual insurance market are changing contract negotiations between payers and.

How to Negotiate With Health Care Plan

Negotiation and the structure of discourse in medical consultation Abstract Using audio tape recordings of consultations between mid-level pro-viders and patients in a health maintenance organization, a model of medical negotiation is presented. This model conceptualizes nego-tiation as a process in which mid-level providers and patients introduc Negotiated care-fundamental to nursing practice. This paper focuses on negotiation in nursing. It suggests that negotiation, in the form of negotiated care, is a key element of nursing practice in the many contexts in which it takes place. To support this statement the process of negotiated care is illustrated by three examples

3 negotiation strategies for hospitals, physicians

Will the US Embrace the Affordable Care Act in Future Years?

Compare and contrast the three major negotiation models as

Successfully Negotiating Managed Care Contract

The process of negotiating contracts and the ultimate content of contracts are very similar to that of MOU negotiation and content. Contracting simply requires further attention to legal detail. The following material will be useful to agencies interested in contracting since it represents a building block for understanding contract negotiation. Now, value-based healthcare reimbursement methods. They are intended to encourage providers to deliver the best care at the lowest cost. One-Sided Model (or Gain Share) vs. Two-Sided Model (Risk Share) With a one-sided model, providers are rewarded when they perform well. With a two-sided model, they are rewarded or punished depending on their. Negotiation in Health Care Case Study Easton Hospital (EH), a 369-bed hospital, is located in the Lehigh Valley of Northampton County, Pennsylvania. It serves 300,000 residents of the county, employs about 1,500, and offers an array of specialties including renal dialysis and open heart surgery Contract Negotiation, Analysis, and Modeling. Improvement of commercial payor contracts can result in significant revenue gains. Supero Healthcare Solutions has extensive experience assisting providers in managed care contract analysis, negotiation, and revenue capture.We have expertise in every step of the managed care process, from defining the contracting strategy, to modeling the revenue.

Golden Caduceus Symbol 3d model - CGStudio

Mediation and Negotiation Department of Healt

  1. Negotiation facilitates agreement when some of your interests are shared and some are opposed Negotiation is the process of evolving communication to get from opposition to consensus, manage conflict and reach agreement Negotiation principles apply as much to your internal team as they do to an outside part
  2. learned in calculating prices, negotiating with providers, and monitoring changes. Recognizing that no single model is applicable to all settings, the study aimed to generate best practices and identify areas for future research, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Organisation fo
  3. Different Models of Alternative Dispute Resolution in Healthcare The public's increased awareness of patient safety and demand for transparency of medical errors, along with the significant cost, complexity, and volume of malpractice cases, has opened the door for utilizing different methods for conflict resolution
  4. g) ocean of published literature on this subject, or to offer any novel insight into the process (which the author can not.
  5. and the 2010-11 Health and Social Care Bill3 confirm the government's commitment to extending competition in healthcare. The Health Foundation believes that external drivers for change, such as competition, regulation and financial incentives, can be an important way to improve quality in healthcare when used as one component of a broader system

Models of Negotiation - Management Study H

  1. Analytic models of VfM 43 3.2.1. Statistical methods 44 3.2.2. Descriptive methods 45 4. Conclusions 47 References 51. Summary 6 Measuring value for money in healthcare: concepts and tools health gain in the form of QALYs and associated measurement instruments such as EQ5D. These have been used mainly for the purposes of health technology.
  2. TOPIC 7 DQ 3 Describe the three major negotiation models and provide an example of when each might be utilized in a health care environment. Rank them in order their effectiveness. The three major negotiation models are distributive, integrative, and interactive (Borowski, 2016)
  3. health outcomes achieved These dynamics break down in healthcare markets. The inherent The need to explicitly model cost and effect distinguishes healthcare from other goods and services. For most non-healthcare price negotiation, and creating incentives for patient and physicians to follow protocol guidelines

Collaboration in a competitive healthcare system

A Public-Private Partnership, also called a PPP, P3 or 3P, is an agreement between government agency i.e. local or national government and private sector company. Public-Private Partnership refers to the collaboration between government agency and private sector which can be used to finance, build and use projects, usually public projects The development of user-friendly negotiation support systems enabled negotiators to obtain advice directly from the system rather than via an intermediary. The emergence of e-commerce and the development of negotiating software agents further contributed to the automation of negotiation activities. These developments exposed inconsistencies in the descriptions of integrative and distributed. in the decision-making process: (1) D = define the problem, (2) E = establish the criteria, (3) C = consider all the alternatives, (4) I = identify the best alternative, (5) D = develop and implement a plan of action, and (6) E = evaluate and monitor the solution and feedback when necessary. The DECIDE model is intended as a resource for health care managers when applying the crucial. The study, published in the journal Health Affairs, examined how other high-income countries that use a fee-for-service model regulate health care costs. Although the United States has the highest health care prices in the world, the specific mechanisms commonly used by other countries to set and update prices are often overlooked

The price of healthcare is highly correlated with the market power held by providers and health plans. 7 In this rush to gain negotiating leverage, competition is displaced and the dominant insurers and providers set prices according to what they can demand instead of the quality or underlying cost of the care. In these staff model HMOs, the practitioner is an employee of the MCO. About The Authors: Bruce Johnson, M.S., PMP, is President of Johnson Consulting Services, Inc., an information management consulting firm that specializes in working with social service, healthcare, and government organizations How to Negotiate Using the FBI's 5-Step Hostage Strategy Whether it's a VC, a partner, an employee, a spouse, or your child, getting someone to see things your way means doing this first Allina Health has three Integrated Health Partnership (IHP) contracts, an accountable care model that incentivizes healthcare providers to take on more financial accountability for the cost of care for Medicaid patients, which cover approximately 90,000 members. To achieve success in its IHP contracts, and avoid losses, Allina Health needed to. A win-win negotiation is a careful exploration of both your own position, and that of your opposite number, in order to find a mutually acceptable outcome that gives you both as much of what you want as possible. If you both walk away happy with what you've gained from the deal, then that's a win-win! In an ideal win-win situation, you will.

In different field of performances grasp I have taken initiatives to improve communications skills in business doing in health and social setting action in first week and for improving verbal and non-verbal communication in second and third week using Gibbs Reflective Model. Negotiation in business process is also important because the. Importance Of Collaboration In Public Health. Collaboration in public health plays a large role in successfully improving population health. This can be done through programs, initiatives, coalitions and much more. Since public health is a vast field, spanning many disciplines and fingers reaching into various other fields, successful. The negotiation, drafting, and execution process of clear and defined telehealth contracts is an important cornerstone of success when designing and operating a successful telehealth business model. Traditional business models within healthcare focus on direct revenue gained primarily through FFS reimbursement. A telehealth program's.

Negotiated care - fundamental to nursing practic

Build new capabilities now that could set your organization up for future growth. HBS Online offers a unique and highly engaging way to learn vital business concepts Models of Negotiation and Bargaining in Health Care. In this scenario, negotiation over contractual terms, including prices as one major element, becomes a relevant issue in the analysis of performance of health care systems. Both empirical and theoretical analyses have been produced, and are reviewed below. This chapter reflects our views and. Negotiating a contract with a health plan is often time-consuming and labor intensive, and it usually leaves family physicians feeling frustrated and uninformed. the AMA offers a Model Managed. Bargaining. Bargaining is the stage that most people associate with negotiation. However, this stage alone is NOT negotiating. It begins with an exchange of terms, an opening of the discussion of a deal.. Dr. Steve Blum teaches AAMC EDS participants to delay this stage as long as reasonable, but to recognize when it begins In July 2019, CMS approved negotiation of a similar payment model for HCV treatment in Washington State. Under Washington's proposed model, the state would pay a fixed annual amount to a pharmaceutical manufacturer to purchase an unrestricted supply of HCV drugs. Previously, the Washington State Health Care Authority had announced that Abbvie.

This chapter discusses issues physicians should consider prior to negotiating with a health plan over payment, such as identifying the goal of the negotiations, evaluating your negotiating position, and building your negotiating teamā€”and also describes special issues likely to arise in connection with budget-based payment arrangements Fee-for-service models have been used most extensively in the healthcare industry, with mixed results. In order to successfully craft a fee-for-service model agreement, the keys lie in specificity of the contract detailing governance and oversight, responsibilities for equitable risk and investment, and how ultimate authority will be managed Distributive negotiation is also sometimes called positional or hard-bargaining negotiation. It tends to approach negotiation on the model of haggling in a market. In a distributive negotiation, each side often adopts an extreme position, knowing that it will not be accepted, and then employs a combination of guile, bluffing, an

The ACCESS Model for Transcultural Care: A - Assessment . Emphasis on the cultural aspects of a client's lifestyle, health beliefs, and health practices. C - Communication . Awareness in variations between verbal and non-verbal responses. C - Cultural negotiation and compromis The key to successful negotiation is to shift the situation to a win-win even if it looks like a win-lose situation. Almost all negotiation have at least some elements of win-win. Successful negotiations often depend on finding the win-win aspects in any situation. Only shift to a win-lose mode if all else fails

The Team - Reimbursement Pathways

The Agile approachā€”if embraced by health care organizationsā€”will enable new Agile health practices, allow care to be more adaptive and responsive to new knowledge, improve care processes to. The Best Practices Series. PolicyMedical specializes in policy, contract, and business associate document management software designed specifically for the healthcare industry. Our software solutions are trusted by and currently being utilized by over 3,000 healthcare organizations and facilities across the United States and Canada

Principles of negotiation and influencing Health Knowledg

The Art of Negotiating Ā® for Healthcare Organizations teaches administrators, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare personnel the powerful skills of negotiation, communication, and conflict resolutionā€”and how utilizing these skills can improve patient care and general practice operations. This powerful seminar provides insights into the importance of negotiation in the healthcare. Mediā€Cal Managed Care Models ā€¢ Two Plan Model:State contracts with 2 plans: a local initiative (locally developed and operated), and a commercial plan. - Available in 14 counties, serving 3 million beneficiaries ā€¢ County Organized Health System: One health plan administere Negotiation is referred to as the style of discussing things among individuals in an effort to come to a conclusion satisfying all the parties involved. Discussions should be on an open forum for every one to not only participate but also express their views and reach to an alternative acceptable to all

CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING IN THE HEALTHCARE SETTING There are 5 primary strategies to use when looking for creative ways to solve problems in healthcare: Brainstorming Thinking hats Problem reversal S.W.O.T. Role-playing We all have to deal with problems, not only at work, but also in our personal lives. Planning a wedding or a party, finding chil reflective negotiation model recognizes that health care occurs within an intricate constellation of beliefs the model presents cultural competence as an ongoing process in which we must both be introspective and interested in other people September 09, 2016 - In January 2015, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced that it intends to link half of all traditional Medicare payments to a value-based reimbursement model by the end of 2018.. The announcement, followed quickly by the unveiling of the MACRA framework that focuses on alternative payment models (APMs) for quality care improvements, led many providers.

Models of Negotiation - Management Study Guid

Leininger's Culture Care Theory attempts to provide culturally congruent nursing care through cognitively based assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling acts or decisions that are mostly tailor-made to fit with individual, group's, or institution's cultural values, beliefs, and lifeways.. The intent of the care is to fit. The Persuasion Tools Model. Andrea Reynolds developed the Persuasion Tools Model (see figure 1 below). She first published it in the 2003 book Emotional Intelligence and Negotiation, and again in the 2008 book The Purchasing Models Handbook.The model is based on work by the psychologist Kenneth Berrien

Health Care Systems - Four Basic Models. An excerpt from correspondent T.R. Reid's upcoming book on international health care, titled We're Number 37!, referring to the U.S. 's ranking in the World Health Organization 2000 World Health Report. The book is scheduled to be published by Penguin Press in early 2009 Negotiation and conflict resolution: Perfecting a skill you use daily. February 17, 2014. Negotiating is something we have all been doing since we were toddlers throwing tantrums until we got what we wanted. In your entrepreneurial career, you'll be involved in many negotiations where you'll need a better strategy than kicking and screaming outcomes. We next unbundle whether the negotiation treatment e ects are driven by the acquisition of negotiation skills themselves.2 To do so, we compare the negotiation e ects to a \placebo intervention { a safe space treatment3 that o ered girls a safe physical space to spend time after school with the same Zambian, female mentors who taught the negotiation program Understanding Organisations: Identifying and managing internal and external stakeholder interests Definitions: Stakeholder is a person who has something to gain or lose through the outcomes of a planning process, programme or project (Dialogue by Design, 2008).. Stakeholder Engagement is the process of effectively eliciting stakeholders' views on their relationship with the organisation.

NEGOTIATING HEALTH: patients' and guardians' perspective

  1. g up with an.
  2. The Role Risk Plays in Value-Based Care Reimbursement Models Payers will need to incorporate new strategies when negotiating contracts with providers using a value-based care reimbursement model
  3. Using historical contract data, contract modeling software allows your healthcare organization to model thousands of various reimbursement combinations to understand the impact of the proposed payer contractual terms on your bottom line. When negotiating new payer contracts with healthcare contract modeling, you can: Save time and money
  4. Stella Ting-Toomey's face negotiation theory is based on two concepts of Chinese conception. People are considered to have two specific faces and these are called mien-tzu and lien.. Mien-tzu is an external face, one that is social in nature, and involves authority, power, and influence. Lien is an internal face, one that is.
  5. Competition in health care markets benefits consumers because it helps contain costs, improve quality, and encourage innovation. The Federal Trade Commission's job as a law enforcer is to stop firms from engaging in anticompetitive conduct that harms consumers. The agency also provides guidance to market participants -- including physicians and.
  6. Community/patient-centered model of healthcare. As traditional roles in healthcare delivery are shifting, so too should the care models. The current crisis has highlighted how challenging it can be for individuals to interact with the healthcare system and receive consistent, personalized guidance and understand care alternatives
  7. Integrative negotiation is a collaborative model in which the parties seek to expand the range of possible outcomes and thereby maximize their individual benefits by shoring in the collective efforts and results.For example, a union may get better wages and in response may produce more in terms of quantity and quality. In such a situation, both the union as well as the management wins

Fig 1. Data is from Definitive Healthcare's Hospitals & IDNs database. For the complete list, visit Top 25 IDNs by Hospitals and Discharges. Large IDNs have the potential to replace GPOs as the healthcare industry's price negotiators. More than 680 IDNs are currently affiliated with at least one GPO according to Definitive Healthcare data The chapter explains the reason for an integrated model of intervention in crisis negotiation. It also explains the steps in the REACT model. The REACT model describes tasks rather than stages because negotiations do not always follow a set course, but the tasks are basic to the majority of negotiations There are 41 accountable care organizations in the CMS' Next Generation ACO Model for 2019. That's a substantial decline from 2018, when 51 organizations were in the model

CapitalGā€™s Kaushik Anand to join VC fund floated by formerJay Ellis | Great Black Speakers

Managing conflict is an unavoidable part of almost any career, and the distinctive nature of a health informaticist's work can make conflicts more frequent and more essential to manage than those in many other fields.. Conflicts in a healthcare setting can range from everyday disagreements to major controversies that can lead to litigation or, in rare cases, even violence Improve Payer Negotiations with Contract Modeling After healthcare providers have established contract governance, this historical data can now be leveraged to aggressively model payer contracts in real-time while using the same platform to develop a competitive rate setting strategy and understanding the impact on their current contracts and net patient revenues In Vietnamese culture, mystical beliefs explain physical and mental illness. Health is viewed as the result of a harmonious balance between the poles of hot and cold that govern bodily functions. Vietnamese don't readily accept Western mental health counseling and interventions, particularly when self-disclosure is expected An analysis of Beattie's model of health promotion. Beattie's model of health promotion is a complex analytical model that acknowledges that health promotion is 'embedded in wider social and cultural practices' (Wills and Earle 2007, Chapter 5) This model not only gives us the ability to analyse current and previous health promotion strategies and our own roles within that, but also.

The clock speed of the healthcare industry has been accelerating for years. And now the pace is growing frenetic. Consider the news from just one week. U.S. insurer UnitedHealth Group, which has been building its Optum subsidiary into a health services juggernaut, acquired DaVita Medical Group, adding significantly to its roster of 30,000 physicians. . The blockbuster combination of CVS and. ASC Payer Contract Negotiations: Key Concepts for Best Results. Payer contract optimization is crucial for ambulatory surgery centers as payers continue to squeeze providers on reimbursement rates. There are several core concepts that can help ASC administrators, physicians and revenue cycle managers prepare for negotiations and achieve at the. Distributive bargaining describes a scenario where two parties are trying to divide up a fixed resource, usually in a competitive fashion. They go back and forth until there is a final solution. Business model. In the United States, health insurance providers often hire an outside company to handle price negotiations, insurance claims, and distribution of prescription drugs.Providers which use such pharmacy benefit managers include commercial health plans, self-insured employer plans, Medicare Part D plans, the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program, and state government employee.

The purpose of this Quick Safety is to present some de-escalation models 1 and interventions for managing aggressive and agitated patients in the ED and inpatient settings. There are many different de-escalation techniques; this Quick Safety is intended to guide health care professionals to resources for more information and training The Health Leads model recruits university volunteers to assist patients in finding help for these social needs, thus freeing up clinical staff time. Health Leads is currently undergoing evaluation. While Health Leads may demonstrate improved health outcomes, the model will likely spread more quickly if it is found to be effective in optimising. The BNI helps health care providers explore health behavior change with patients in a respectful, non-judgmental way within a finite time period. Instead of telling the patient what changes he/she should make, the BNI is intentionally designed to elicit reasons for change and action steps from the patient. It gives the patient voice and choice. ECG's roots in payer contracting run deep, making us one of the most effective healthcare contracting and reimbursement firms in the country. Managing the increasingly complex reimbursement models of commercial and government payers is absorbing elevated levels of hospital resources - and with no assurances that contracts are tenable or will.

The Role of Mental Health Consultants on Hostage Negotiation Teams. December 1, 2004. Theodore B. Feldmann, MD. Hostage and barricade situations occur frequently in law enforcement practice. Commonly, police deal with hostage/barricade subjects whose motivation is influenced by psychiatric illness, substance abuse or extreme emotional states Messenger Model. In a messenger model, the organization acts as a neutral messenger between managed care payors and physician providers. The messenger conveys information on fees and terms that a physician is willing to accept. Each physician is an independent agent, and chooses terms on an individual basis - the messenger process. So, the plan paid $23,250. A different hospital gave a better discount, 10 percent, but on a sticker price of $115,000. So, the plan got billed $103,500 ā€” more than four times the amount it paid.

5 Key Considerations for Providers Negotiating Risk-Based

In contract theory and economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other. This asymmetry creates an imbalance of power in transactions, which can sometimes cause the transactions to be inefficient causing market failure in the worst case. Examples of this problem are adverse selection, moral hazard.

exhibition designers, exhibition graphics, exhibition